References for Segment One
- The Bible is the Overarching Chiasm and the Source of Chiastic Structures. Just as the Bible is accepted by many scholars as the source of using types and shadows in other literature, so it was the source for the chiastic structures present in other literature. For, as traditional Jews and Christians believe, it was the first of all literature, and it was written with internal chiastic structures. When “Revelation” is fulfilled, it will truly be the overarching chiasm.
- Sources on Jewish Wedding Traditions. Jewish wedding traditions were patterned after the covenant the Lord had set with Israel. [Marvin R. Wilson, Our Father Abraham, (Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.: Grand Rapids, MI), pp. 203-213]. For a more detailed treatment of Jewish wedding traditions and the Lord as Bridegroom, see Donna B. Nielsen, Beloved Bridegroom, Onyx Press, 1999.
- Biblical Chiastic parallels with scriptural citations.
God’s Old Covenant _ God’s New Covenant
- A Bounteous Paradise (Eden) A’ A Far Greater Paradise to come
(Genesis 2:8-17) (Revelation 21-22)
- Tree of life; Fountain of waters B’ More Fruits from Tree; Greater Fountains
(Gen. 2:9-10) (Rev. 22:1-2)
- Bridegroom reigns C’ Bridegroom to reign
(Gen. 2:15) (Rev. 19:11-16)
- Bride comes from Bridegroom’s side to be One D’ Bridegroom lifts Bride to side as One
(Gen. 2:21-24) (Rev. 19:7; 21:2; 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17)
- Bride takes Bridegroom’s name E’ Bride to take Bridegroom’s name
(Gen. 2:23) (Rev. 22:4)
- Bride eats forbidden fruit (wine from grape?) F’ Bride to drink cup of consummation
(Gen. 3:1-6) (Mark 14:25; Rev. 19:9)
- Bride to be cast out of God’s presence G’ Bride to re-enter God’s presence
(Gen. 3:6, 23) (Rev: 21:2-3)
- Bridegroom takes on Bride’s guilt H’ Bridegroom to bear Bride’s stains
(Gen 3:6, 17) (Rev. 19:13, 15)
- Bridegroom (Jehovah) provides covering garments I’ Bridegroom to provide glorious garments
(Gen 3:21) (Rev. 19:8)
- Bridegroom and Bride cast out J’ Serpent to be cast out
(Gen. 3:23-4) (Rev. 20:2-3)
- Bridegroom covenants Home & Seed K’ Bridegroom prepares Home for Seed
(Gen. 13:14-16) (John 14:2; Rev. 3:21)
- Israel receives covenants L’ Israel to again receive covenants
(Gen. 15) (Romans 11:26-36)
- Bride (Israel) is unfaithful M’ Bride (Gentiles) will be unfaithful
(Ezekiel 16:8, 38) (Romans 11:21-25)
- Bridegroom promises covenant with Gentiles N’ Bridegroom covenants with Gentiles
(Shown in Book of Ruth) (Acts 10:34, 47)
- Whore is cast down ) O’ Whore is cast down
(2 Kings 9:30-35) (Revelation 17-18)
X = The Atonement
Christ comes, as Bridegroom, and fulfills all Bridegroom symbolism.
Bridegroom offers covenant to Israel; Bridegroom purchases Bride with sacrificial blood of
The Fate of Mankind is reversed upon a cross.
I have actually found 23 parallels (and more references to the bridegroom on both sides that do not have exact parallels). The set of 23 is outlined in Yvonne Bent, ed.,
Discovering Chiasmus, A Pattern in All Things, (New York: Digital Legend, 2011), pp. 85-93.
- Bride is Lifted Up. In many Jewish weddings today, the bride is lifted up in a chair after the wedding. In others, both the bride and bridegroom are lifted up in chairs. This is considered by some as an illustration of how in marriage the participants should “lift each other up.” (See Wilson, op.cit. p. 213). However from the scriptures we can see it foretells how Jesus will eventually “lift up” His bride and bring her to His home.
- The Forbidden fruit Adam and Eve partook bringing death may have been the grape, [or its juice] according to several ancient accounts of Adam. One, Baruch (IV, 13-15) even has an angel promising Noah, who hesitates to replant the grape vine, “For Adam was destroyed by it,” “…plant the vine; its bitterness shall be changed to sweetness, and its curse shall be changed to a blessing. What it yields shall be the blood of God.” (CF 257:373), as quoted in Hugh Nibley, Abraham in Egypt, (Deseret Book: Salt Lake City, UT, 1981), p. 156.
So there is special meaning when the same fruit which brings death into the world crosses over through the Savior and His offering of His blood/wine and become the fruit which brings life back into the world.
- Taking Home the Bride. The bridegroom took his bride to live in his family’s house after his father said it was ready. Particularly in the Mid-east, families have traditionally lived in extended family compounds. One can still see homes today with metal rods extending up from the roofs in anticipation of eventually building additional rooms for future family sub-groups. However, in modern Israel, such ancient traditions are often replaced by community compounds, or kibbutz.
When Jesus spoke of many mansions in His Father’s House, He was likening it to the ancient tradition.
Also, “Married sons… remained under the authority of the head of the household until he died…” Leo G. Perdue, The Israelite and Early Jewish Family, 1997, p. 180.
So it was the respected, aged Father who was looked to for guidance. In like manner, Jesus referred to His Father as alone knowing when He would return for His bride.
- The Whore is Cast Down. The parallels here do not fit the exact order on both sides. But that is true in many chiastic structures. All other parallels are in exact order. No one organization is intended to be represented here but pertains to the following: “She is a harlot because she and her children have left their true husband — [Jehovah or] Christ — to live with the world. [signified by the number seventy]. Because they do this for money and power, they have sold themselves.” S. Michael Wilcox, “The Revelation” in the New Testament and the Latter-day Saints (Orem, UT: Randall Book Company, 1987), p. 365.
References for Segment Two: The Final Days of Awe
- The Source of the Holy Days. The Holy Days the Lord commanded Israel to keep are outlined in Leviticus 23:4-44.
- The timing of Jesus crucifixion and Passover are found in Matthew 26; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7-13 (who make the Last Supper a Passover meal), and John 19:14 (who says Jesus was crucified on Passover). Many scholars have shown ways the differences in timing are reconciled. Alfred Edersheim shows the Last Supper was a Passover meal, but Jesus’ crucifixion was on the next day of Passover when the offering of the Chagigah, both a joyous and a willing offering, was made, as well as more Passover lambs slain (Alfred Edersheim, The Temple: Its Ministry and Services; (Peabody, MS: Hendrickson Publishers, 1998), pp.193-202.
- The Time of the Cutting of the First Sheaf. The first sheaf was cut down just as Jesus’ body was removed from the cross (Alfred Edersheim, The Temple), pp. 203-204.
- How the Sheaf was treated after being cut down. This sheaf was beaten, roast, ground and anointed with frankincense and oil, in the same way Jesus had suffered and was prepared for His burial. It was lifted up as an offering to the Lord on the same morning Jesus arose from the tomb, the morning after the Sabbath (Edersheim, pp. 203-5).
- What was “The Dark Time.” For more information on The Dark Time, see Michael Strassfeld, The Jewish Holidays, (New York: Harper Collins, 1985).
- Evidence September 22, 1827 was The Day of Remembrance. September 22, 1827 was celebrated as The Day of Remembrance (Eduard Mahler, Handbuch der judischen Chronologie (Leipzig: Fock, 1916)), 588. Verification can also be obtained from Jewish community libraries. The date can be recalculated from Jewish calendars.
- The original name for Rosh Hashanah was The Day of Remembrance. Louis Jacobs, “Ro’sh Ha-shanah and Yom Kippur” in Mircea Eliade, ed. The Encyclopedia of Religion, 12 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1987) 12:474; Max Arzt, Justice and Mercy: Commentary on the Liturgy of the New Year and the Day of Atonement (San Francisco: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963), 36, 146.
- The Day of Remembrance signified the time God would finally move from His seat of judgment against Israel and sit instead on His seat of mercy (Max Arzt, Justice and Mercy), p. 149).
- Why the Day of Remembrance was expected to be a time of New Revelation. Because the first recorded time Israel as a whole heard God’s trumpet was at Mt. Sinai, just before God revealed His Ten Commandments, many through the centuries came to expect that someday, at the sound of the trumpet on this day, New Revelation would again come forth from God. Many saw it as prophetic of the future, of a time when the true law will be granted, resulting in redemption. “The smaller horn was sounded at Sinai, but the great shofar will initiate redemption” (Leo Trepp, The Complete Book of Jewish Observance, (New York: Behrman House and Summit Books, 1980), p. 95.
- Heber C. Kimball’s account of the vision of the armies is recounted in Orson F. Whitney,
The Life of Heber C. Kimball, (Liberty, Mo: Zion’s Camp Books, reprint from 1888), p. 23.
- Aaron Munson Baldwin’s account of the vision can be found on FamilySearch. org. under “Memories” and “Find.”
- Brigham Young’s Account of the Vision is found in General Church Minutes 1839-1877, January 8, 1845 Archives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter –Day Saints. Or Brigham Young’s remarks in Deseret News, July 19, 1866, 2.
- Why did armies appear in the vision. For an explanation of why it was logical for armies to appear in the vision see Alfred Edersheim, The Temple, p. 231. However, he undoubtedly got his interpretation from Numbers 10:9.
- Elder Bruce R. McConkie’s statement that the Feast of Tabernacles points to the Millennium can be found in The Promised Messiah, (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1978) p. 433.
- 15. That seventy symbolically represents the nations of the earth began because Genesis 10 which recounts that after Noah, seventy-two descendants of Noah are listed. Many Jewish and Christian scholars attest to this, including Jean Danielou, From Shadows to Reality, (London: Burns and Oates, 1960), p. 173; and Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, (Hendrickson Publishers, reprint of 1993), p. 577.